Eleonora Patacchini, Giuseppe Ragusa, and Yves Zenou, “Unexplored Dimensions of Discrimination in Europe: Homosexuality and Physical Appearance.” Journal of Population Economics, 28(4):1045-1073
We study labor-market discrimination of individuals with “specific“ characteristics in Italy. We conduct a field experiment in two Italian cities: Rome and Milan, by sending “fake“ CVs to real ads. We find that there is a strong penalty for homosexuals, i.e., about 30% less chance to be called back compared to a heterosexual male and even more so if they are highly skilled. On the other hand, we find no penalty for homosexual females. We also find a beauty premium for females only but this premium is much lower when the “pretty” woman is skilled.